What is Neuromodulation?

Neuromodulation refers to the alteration of nerve activity through targeted delivery of a stimulus, such as electrical stimulation or chemicals, to specific neurological sites in the body. This modulation can affect the function of neural circuits and subsequently impact various physiological processes, including pain perception, movement, mood, and cognitive function.

Neuromodulation techniques can involve invasive procedures, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), spinal cord stimulation (SCS), or vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), where electrodes are implanted to deliver electrical impulses to specific areas of the nervous system. Non-invasive methods, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), also exist, which modulate brain activity using magnetic fields or low-intensity electrical currents applied to the scalp.

Neuromodulation therapies are used to treat various medical conditions, including chronic pain, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). They offer a promising approach for managing neurological and psychiatric disorders by directly influencing neural activity and circuitry.